A Clockwork Orange Author Anthony Burgess Lists His Five Favorite Dystopian Novels: Orwell’s 1984, Huxley’s Island & More


From Sir Thomas More’s 1516 philosophical novel Utopia to Disney’s 2016 adult-friendly kids’ movie Zootopia, the genre of the “-topia” has been remarkably durable. Taking Plato’s Republic as their model, the first utopian fictions flourished in an optimistic age, when political philosophy imagined a perfect union between government and science. Such fiction portrayed mostly harmonious, high-functioning civilizations as contrasts to real, imperfect societies—and yet, as modern industry began to threaten human well-being and formerly idealized forms of government acquired a tyrannical hue, the genre began to project into the future not hopes of freedom, ease, and plenty but rather fears of mass suffering, imprisonment, and misrule. In place of utopias, modernity gave us dystopias, terrifying fictions of a hellish future birthed by war, totalitarian rule, gross economic inequality, and misapplied technologies.

Before John Stuart Mill coined the word “dystopia” in 1868, pessimistic post-Enlightenment thinker Jeremy Bentham created an earlier, perhaps even scarier, word, “cacotopia,” the “imagined seat of the worst government.” This was the term favored by Anthony Burgess, author of one of the most unsettling dystopian novels of the last century, A Clockwork Orange. Depicting a chaotic future England filled with extreme criminal violence and an unnerving government solution, the novel can be read as either, writes Ted Gioia, “a look into the morality of an individual, or as an inquiry into the morality of the State.” It seems to me that this dual focus marks a central feature of much successful dystopian fiction: despite its thoroughly grim and pessimistic nature, the best representatives of the genre present us with human characters who have some agency, however limited, and who can choose to revolt from the oppressive conditions (and usually fail in the attempt) or to fully acquiesce and remain complicit.

The rebellion of a single non-conformist generally forms the basis of conflict in dystopian fiction, as we’ve seen in recent, populist iterations like The Hunger Games series and their more derivative counterparts. And yet, in most classic dystopian novels, the hero remains an anti-hero—or an un-hero, rather: unexceptional, unimportant, and generally unnoticed until he or she decides to cross a line. A few of Burgess’s own favorites of the genre roughly follow this classic formula, including Orwell’s 1984. In the short list below, Burgess comments on five works of dystopian fiction he held in particularly high regard. Two of them, Aldous Huxley’s Island and Russell Hoban’s Riddley Walker, break the mold, and show us two opposite extremes of civilizations perfected, and completely annihilated, by Western progress. Burgess’s first choice, Norman Mailer’s The Naked and the Dead seems not to fit at all, being an account of past atrocities rather than a speculative look into the future.

Nevertheless, Burgess seems willing to stretch the boundaries of what we typically think of as dystopian fiction in order to include books that offer, as Mailer’s novel has it, “a preview of the future.” See Burgess’s picks below, and read excerpts from his commentary on these five novels. You can read his full descriptions at The International Anthony Burgess Foundation website.

The futility of war is well presented. The island to be captured has no strategic importance. The spirit of revolt among the men is stirred by an accident: the patrol stumbles into a hornets’ nest and runs away, dropping weapons and equipment, the naked leaving the dead behind them. An impulse can contain seeds of human choice: we have not yet been turned entirely into machines. Mailer’s pessimism was to come later — in The Deer Park and Barbary Shore and An American Dream — but here, with men granting themselves the power to opt out of the collective suicide of war, there is a heartening vision of hope. This is an astonishingly mature book for a twenty-five-year-old novelist. It remains Mailer’s best, and certainly the best war novel to emerge from the United States.

This is one of the few dystopian or cacotopian visions which have changed our habits of thought. It is possible to say that the ghastly future Orwell foretold has not come about simply because he foretold it: we were warned in time. On the other hand, it is possible to think of this novel as less a prophecy than the comic joining together of two disparate things — an image of England as it was in the immediate post-war era, a land of gloom and shortages, and the bizarrely impossible notion of British intellectuals taking over the government of the country (and, for that matter, the whole of the English-speaking world).

Jael 97 is facially overprivileged: her beauty must be reduced to a drab norm. But, like the heroes and heroines of all cacotopian novels, she is an eccentric. Seeing for the first time the west tower of Ely Cathedral, one of the few lofty structures left unflattened by the war, she experiences a transport of ecstasy and wishes to cherish her beauty. Her revolt against the regime results in no brutal reimposition of conformity — only in the persuasions of sweet reason. This is no Orwellian future. It is a world incapable of the dynamic of tyranny. Even the weather is always cool and grey, with no room for either fire or ice. The state motto is ‘Every valley shall be exalted.’ This is a brilliant projection of tendencies already apparent in the post-war British welfare state but, because the book lacks the expected horrors of cacotopian fiction, it has met less appreciation than Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Nobody is scientifically conditioned to be happy: this new world is really brave. It has learned a great deal from Eastern religion and philosophy, but it is prepared to take the best of Western science, technology and art. The people themselves are a sort of ideal Eurasian race, equipped with fine bodies and Huxleyan brains, and they have read all the books that Huxley has read.

All this sounds like an intellectual game, a hopeless dream in a foundering world, but Huxley was always enough of a realist to know that there is a place for optimism. Indeed, no teacher can be a pessimist, and Huxley was essentially a teacher. In Island the good life is eventually destroyed by a brutal, stupid, materialistic young raja who wants to exploit the island’s mineral resources.

England… after nuclear war, is trying to organize tribal culture after the total destruction of a centralized industrial civilization. The past has been forgotten, and even the art of making fire has to be relearned. The novel is remarkable not only for its language but for its creation of a whole set of rituals, myths and poems. Hoban has built a whole world from scratch.

Burgess’s list gives us such a small sampling of dystopian fiction, and with so many classic and contemporary examples about, it’s tempting to add to his list (one wonders why he chooses Huxley’s Island and not Brave New World). There’s no reason why we can’t. If you’re so inclined, tell us your favorite dystopian novels, or films, in the comments, with a brief description of their merits.

H/T to one of our fans on our Facebook page, John B.

Related Content:

Vladimir Nabokov Names the Greatest (and Most Overrated) Novels of the 20th Century

David Foster Wallace’s Surprising List of His 10 Favorite Books, from C.S. Lewis to Tom Clancy

Stephen King’s Top 10 All-Time Favorite Books

Josh Jones is a writer and musician based in Durham, NC. Follow him at @jdmagness

by | Permalink | Comments (22) |

Support Open Culture

We’re hoping to rely on our loyal readers rather than erratic ads. To support Open Culture’s educational mission, please consider making a donation. We accept PayPal, Venmo (@openculture), Patreon and Crypto! Please find all options here. We thank you!

Comments (22)
You can skip to the end and leave a response. Pinging is currently not allowed.
  • Jan Annoot says:

    The Gate to Women’s Country by Sherri S. Tepper. Fantastic post-apocalyptic dystopian/utopian (feminist) future that everyone should read … female and male!

  • George B. Qakvik McClintock says:

    I have read 1984 and Brave New World and watched Kubrick’s Clockwork Orange. There is one novel that I think merits inclusion in this list.

    On the cover of The Modern Library edition (2006) is a quote by Ursula K. Le Guin – “The Best Single Work Of Science Fiction Yet Written.”

    The novel is “WE” by Yevgeny Zamyatin, written in 1921. Well worth reading.

  • Evan Knudsen says:

    I was thinking about reading it. A few years ago, I posted a quote from it on Facebook:

    “You see, it is the ancient legend of paradise.” (“p” like
    a fountain.) “That legend referred to us of today, did it
    not? Yes. Only think of it, think of it a moment! There
    were two in paradise and the choice was offered to them:
    happiness without .freedom, or freedom without happiness.
    No other choice. Tertium non datur. They, fools that
    they were, chose freedom. Naturally, for centuries afterward
    they longed for fetters, for the fetters of yore. This
    was the meaning of their world weariness, Weltschmerz.
    For centuries! And only we found a way to regain happiness…..
    No, listen, follow mel The ancient god and we,
    side by side at the same table! Yes, we helped god to defeat
    the devil definitely and finally. It was he, the devil,
    who led people to transgression, to taste pernicious freedom-he,
    the cunning serpent. And we came along,
    planted a boot on his head, and . . . squash! Done with
    him! Paradise again! We returned to the simple-mindedness
    and innocence of Adam and Eve. No more meddling
    with good and evil and all that; everything is Simple again,
    heavenly, childishly simple! The Well-Doer, the Machine,
    t4e Cube, the giant Gas Bell, the Guardians-all these are
    good. All this is magnificent, beautiful, noble, lofty, crystalline,
    pure. For all this preserves our non-freedom, that
    is, our happiness. In our place those ancients would indulge
    in discussions, deliberations, etc. They would break
    their heads trying· to make out what was moral or unmoral.
    But we … Well, in short, these are the highlights
    of my little paradise poem.

  • Mark Stewart Cassidy says:

    “We” by Y.Zamyatin (1921) isan under-read dystopian novel with a gruelling unhappy pace and an ending which lives up to the tone of the book,to say more would spoil it if you want to read it.

  • L.A. McCue says:

    I’ve read 1984, A Clockwork Orange, Riddley Walker, and We. I recommend Ira Levin’s This Perfect Day. It’s not as challenging as the others and is dated in some discomfiting ways, but despite qualifying as dystopian fiction it’s a fast and entertaining read.

  • Jim Sumner says:

    A worthy addition to the list would be Never Let Me Go based upon the novel by Kazuo Ishiguro. Haunting and unforgettable with excellent acting.

  • kerouac22 says:

    Riddley Walker is a masterpiece! Glad to see it mentioned here.

  • Lucio says:

    i know is about films and i’ sorry but i wanna mention the Somewhere in Time Iron Maiden cd.

  • Peter Francis says:

    A Canticle for Leibowitz – This novel makes the dystopian future even bleaker by having humanity repeat its mistake after barely climbing back to civilisation from the ashes. Not sure if the few fleeing on the rocket ship won’t repeat … is humanity always doomed?

  • joost stolk says:

    Day of the triffids – John Wyndham
    This perfect day – Ira Levin
    The stand – Stephen King

  • Richard says:

    One of Anthony Burgess’ most overlooked novels is “The Wanting Seed”. It does to the population explosion what Dr. Strangelove does to nuclear war. It’s easily one of Burgess’ best novels and would nicely fit into the dystopian genre.

  • Rik says:

    Dhalgren by Samuel R. Delany

  • Micky says:

    Aye it’s up there with my favourites too

  • Jackson Hills says:

    Not dystopian, but those who like these books would also appreciate ‘Erewhon’ by Samuel Butler.

  • Peter says:

    In 1984 Britain was merely Airstrip 1 mind, merely America’s airbase…

  • Timothy Augustin says:

    I might be crazy but I really enjoyed the book “Jennefer Government” by Max Berry

  • Out says:

    The Iron Heel by Jack London written in 1908 deserves to be mentioned in any list of dystopian novels.

  • Jim says:

    Island, like Ecotopia, is autopia. Good essay, but bad novels both.
    And I recommend both.

  • Sm says:

    Lucio , with respect,Piece of Mind is by far Iron Maidens best album. Also Vonda McIntyre The Exile Waiting and Tanith Lee Days of Grass are two of my favorites.

  • Dr. Curiosity says:

    I’d suspect “Brave New World” isn’t on his list because it would already be on people’s lists. There’s no point in further commending it.

  • John Lucas says:

    Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury

  • Ryan says:

    We IS 1984. It was so heavily lent from by Orwell as to be considered plagarism. I’m surprised Burgess selected 1984 instead, actually. But the book did get the message across to a greater population as opposed to We, so that may explain.

Leave a Reply

Open Culture was founded by Dan Colman.