Dr. Seuss Draws Anti-Japanese Cartoons During WWII, Then Atones with Horton Hears a Who!




seuss japan 1

Before Theodor Seuss Geisel AKA Dr. Seuss convinced generations of children that a wocket might just be in their pocket, he was the chief editorial cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM from 1940 to 1948. During his tenure he cranked out some 400 cartoons that, among other things, praised FDR’s policies, chided isolationists like Charles Lindbergh and supported civil rights for blacks and Jews. He also staunchly supported America’s war effort.

To that end, Dr. Seuss drew many cartoons that, to today’s eyes, are breathtakingly racist. Check out the cartoon above. It shows an arrogant-looking Hitler next to a pig-nosed, slanted-eye caricature of a Japanese guy. The picture isn’t really a likeness of either of the men responsible for the Japanese war effort – Emperor Hirohito and General Tojo. Instead, it’s just an ugly representation of a people.

In the battle for homeland morale, American propaganda makers depicted Germany in a very different light than Japan. Germany was seen as a great nation gone mad. The Nazis might have been evil but there was still room for the “Good German.” Japan, on the other hand, was depicted entirely as a brutal monolith; Hirohito and the guy on the street were uniformly evil. Such thinking paved the way for the U.S. Air Force firebombing of Tokyo, where over 100,000 civilians died, and for its nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And it definitely laid the groundwork for one of the sorriest chapters of American 20th century history, the unconstitutional incarceration of Japanese-Americans.

waiting for signals

Geisel himself was vocally anti-Japanese during the war and had no trouble with rounding up an entire population of U.S. citizens and putting them in camps.

But right now, when the Japs are planting their hatchets in our skulls, it seems like a hell of a time for us to smile and warble: “Brothers!” It is a rather flabby battle cry. If we want to win, we’ve got to kill Japs, whether it depresses John Haynes Holmes or not. We can get palsy-walsy afterward with those that are left.

Geisel was hardly alone in such beliefs but it’s still disconcerting to see ugly cartoons like these drawn in the same hand that did The Cat in the Hat.

jap alley

In 1953, Geisel visited Japan where he met and talked with its people and witnessed the horrific aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima. He soon started to rethink his anti-Japanese vehemence. So he issued an apology in the only way that Dr. Seuss could.

He wrote a children’s book.

Horton Hears a Who!, published in 1954, is about an elephant that has to protect a speck of dust populated by little tiny people. The book’s hopeful, inclusive refrain – “A person is a person no matter how small” — is about as far away as you can get from his ignoble words about the Japanese a decade earlier. He even dedicated the book to “My Great Friend, Mitsugi Nakamura of Kyoto, Japan.”

You can view an assortment of Dr. Seuss’s wartime drawings in general, and his cartoons of the Japanese in particular, at the Dr. Went to War Archive hosted by UCSD.

via Dartmouth

Related Content:

Private Snafu: The World War II Propaganda Cartoons Created by Dr. Seuss, Frank Capra & Mel Blanc

New Archive Showcases Dr. Seuss’s Early Work as an Advertising Illustrator and Political Cartoonist

Fake Bob Dylan Sings Real Dr. Seuss

The Epistemology of Dr. Seuss & More Philosophy Lessons from Great Children’s Stories

Jonathan Crow is a Los Angeles-based writer and filmmaker whose work has appeared in Yahoo!, The Hollywood Reporter, and other publications. You can follow him at @jonccrowAnd check out his blog Veeptopus, featuring one new drawing of a vice president with an octopus on his head daily. 


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Comments (40)
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  • I-RIGHT-I says:

    Walt Disney too! Bad, bad men for demonizing the people who only wanted to slaughter other people, and did! This article was in poor taste and the author and editors exhibit teenage understanding of WWII and how the world works. Next: How Bugs Bunny in drag helped shaped the homophobia of a generation.

    • Darin John Hocking says:

      The fact that Japan was trying to rape and pillage America does not give us the right to imprison our own citizens of Japanese descent. As for Disney, he was a great cartoonist and had many good qualities as a human being, but he was also a racist SOB. he is on record as being very anti-Semitic and to the best of my knowledge they have never tried to bomb us

      • I-RIGHT-I says:

        Non sequitur fallacy but I’ll let it go. Ford was a Nazi sympathizer, Sr. Bush and Kennedy too. LBJ was as racist as they get, “the nigg**s will be voting Democrat for the next 200 years” and FDR’s decision to intern the Japanese in during WWII was the correct call. nThis is the real f’ing world my boy. Your daddy didn’t know either so I guess you get a pass but you’re going to find out in spades if you’re under 30. If you’re an American (maybe) you’d better get your shit together really soon and stop all this childish touchy feely nonsense.

        • Darin John Hocking says:

          I am 47 my boy and I know very well how the world works. The Japanese were interned so that their greedy neighbors could get the prime property they owned. I am really unsure how to respond to the rest of your vague, meaningless babble, so I will leave it at that.

          • I-RIGHT-I says:

            Yes, that’s pretty old to be hanging on to the beat up old canards of the Left and lies of the race baiters. You missed the rest because you wanted to. I assume you’re smart enough to recognize your own foolishness thrown back at you. I’ll bet LBJ was your hero. Sorry about that.

          • Darin John Hocking says:

            seriously? LBJ did some decent things almost despite himself, but he is definitely not my hero. If you are calling me a leftist, that must mean everyone to the right of Reagan but to the left of Lyndon Larouche. You must be fun at the clan rallysn

  • I-RIGHT-I says:

    Walt Disney too! Bad, bad men for demonizing the people who only wanted to slaughter other people, and did! This article was in poor taste and the author and editors exhibit teenage understanding of WWII and how the world works. Next: How Bugs Bunny in drag helped shaped the homophobia of a generation.

  • Fee-fi-fo-fum says:

    Ogden Nashn nnThe Japanese (1938)n nnHow courteous is the Japanese;nn He always says, u201cExcuse it, please.u201dnn He climbs into his neighboru2019s garden,nn And smiles, and says, u201cI beg your pardonu201d;nn He bows and grins a friendly grin,nn And calls his hungry family in;nn He grins, and bows a friendly bow;nn u201cSo sorry, this my garden now.u201d

  • Playtrombone64 says:

    It’s human behavior to demonize the enemy in times of war. Were the characterizations of the Japanese accurate or fair? Of course not, but Americans were fighting a people who had decided to try to rule a large portion of the world and the emotional response led to these kinds of images.

  • LazyGepid says:

    We only (pretend) to take offense at this because we won the war.

  • Ronny says:

    Well done to Dr Seuss for being open to a new understanding and making amends.

  • candomarty says:

    “The picture isnu2019t really a likeness of either of the men responsible for the Japanese war effort u2013 Emperor Hirohito and General Tojo. Instead, itu2019s just an ugly representation of a people.” Well, wrong on both counts; it really does look a lot like Hitler and Tojo [for some reason the author added in Hirohito although he’s not in the cartoon, and Hitler (as he mentioned in the previous sentence, is–but hey, why edit?)] and are anything BUT generic. Just because you’re trying to push a point doesn’t make it OK to change reality to your preference.

  • Steve Bshaw says:

    So amusing to read the moral outrage of journalists separated from the horrors of WWII by 70 years. Perhaps you should poll the WWII vets who went through the Bataan Death March, were POWs of the Japanese, the Chinese and Filipinos who suffered under the Japanese occupations as much as the Jews did under the Nazis…perhaps you should ask them how “offensive” these characterizations are.

  • dee anne moore says:

    I remember selling war bonds in the first grade 1946..the world had just closed a chapter that would forever be known as WWII..I had recently accompanied my family to Union Station in Indianapolis where we awaited the train that carried my uncle home… I remember first hearing the shrieking of my mom,aunts and grandparents who spotted him coming before I could see above the adults. He had been stationed on an aircraft repair carrier in the pacific. He told us of a shipmate who was on a deck gun…who was killed when a Japanese plane crashed near the deck of the ship..I new little about the reasons for the war and less about the people who were behind the reasons. I learned to read early and after a few years, my family had purchased a series of books that were about the war…published, I think, by Collier’s …The books had many photos that war correspondents and others had taken…One photo was indelibly etched in my mind…a chubby baby, face wet with tears, mouth wide, crying. Alone, the baby sat in the midst of rubble and nothingness that was the aftermath of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima …a nuclear bomb that my country had dropped on thousands of civilians…men, women and children. The devastation was palpable. As years have passed and I have witnessed the incredible destruction and killing that men all over the world are able to rain upon their fellow human human beings… I know that religion plays a very large part in how actively a culture accepts being the aggressor towards their neighbors. What is clear is there are three currently that justify any violence that their followers choose to initiate. The irony is, that the three are actually one snake with three heads…Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Currently, Islam is seen as the most violent..but it really is just the most raw. The other two are more able to ‘sanitize’ their actions, making them appear less ‘barbaric’… Grandmothers spun the chicken by it’s head, twisting the neck before plucking it clean of feathers …and moving it through the process that put it on the table for consumption. We are “civilized” now …we let the process be done in an even less humane way (grandmother’s chickens had a relatively good life prior to the fateful moment). Today’s process, sanitized for our sensibilities, is horrific and brutal..and the life of the chickens are worse than the death that awaits them. We, who select the well packaged, clean and ready for pot offering in the meat department of the supermarket ..convince ourselves that we are not barbaric..that we are more civilized. War is like that. We have learned how to do our killing away from our backyards…out of sight…so that we do not lose a beat in our daily lives. We are disturbed when we are reminded by a legless young man in a wheelchair…or one who has just taken their own life out of total desperation.. We do no good or provide no hope for the future by living in denial and claiming that we are the ‘good’ guys and the other people are the ‘bad’ ones. The three Abrahamic beliefs are constructs of men..and are easily manipulated to fit whatever is desired to be qualified and validated as ‘acceptable’… There is no ‘good’ belief.. There are humans who are humane and compassionate and do not rely on the adage, ‘well they did it’, or, ‘they are worse’… rather they rely on their own inner compass that seeks to find the good apples in the barrel …and even when there is a bad one, do not throw the others out with it. We will only survive on this planet if we can contain and manage our primal instincts…as hairless apes..chimpanzees who are warlike by nature …Religions are double edged swords …Kali…”goddess” who is at one…the good and the bad..destroyer…restorer.. If we need myths, we should choose the ones that are more honest about their worth…and not the ones that give total control over all…with a disclaimer in the fine print.. (can do these things under certain circumstances ..no refunds given)

  • Lee says:

    Well, how many US citizens didn’t hold racist views of the Japanese at the time? Just watch cartoons from the era: they contain some of the nastiest depictions of the Japanese (and they weren’t much better when it came to other non-white ethnicities).

    Dr. Seuss deserves credit for having a change of heart later on. It’s too bad that the US went on to have politicians like Strom Thurmond, Jesse Helms, Trent Lott, Jan Brewer, Dov Hikind, not to mention entertainers like Mel “the Jews started all the wars” Gibson.

  • Hypestyle says:

    The racial venom in the cartoons is inexcusable, regardless of the war context. Same things goes for the cartoons he drew mocking Africans and black Americans. Mr. Geisel/Seuss deserves his kudos for his children’s books, but these early works cannot be simply erased, and they are not above critique just because he is a “beloved” children’s book author.

  • Calistyle910 says:

    His earlier work is deplorable. But he turned it around and isn’t that what we want from people who espouse racist views? We want them to change? And instead of applauding that, I’m reading comments making excuses for the earlier work and saying “Well, THEY were more racist than US, so there!” It’s just silly. The point of the article was to show people can change, and Dr. Seuss did, for the better, for which I am grateful. We as a society should be able to forgive someone who made amends.

  • jaydeebee says:

    I’ve kept this tab open for hours just to keep coming back to this excellent comment. Well-stated.

  • Paula E Boothe says:

    I totally agree;America is not honoring it mantra its doing the exact oppisite. How dare we tell the world such a bold face lie. Look how MEAN we are to each other…. The World is watching; The youths are saying you guy’s are effed up!

  • Me says:

    Blah blah blah. The Japanese Internment was spearheaded by racism and hysteria brought on by the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was a shameful chapter of American history in blatant violation of the laws that govern the United States. To say otherwise at this late date with decades of hindsight to examine the situation is the pathetic delusions of a racist hiding in their own little warped version of history. If I-Right-I insists on living with that view, that’s his (or her) decision. But it isn’t the writers or editors demonstrating a foolish understanding of WW2 or how the real world works.

  • FacistJap says:

    You are absolutely right Steve. It is disturbing how our Country shoves the crimes of the Japanese against humanity under the carpet to fund our own Agenda against China and Russia by using the Japanese and South Koreans as a pawn.

  • EnemyTortoise15 says:

    THREE WORDS, The Niihau Incident.
    I just explained the whole incident, but the page didn’t save it, I don’t think, so type “Niihau Incident” in your search engine. You’ll only have to read a small amount of it to understand why there was fear for a “Fifth Column.”
    This event, in my opinion, not only makes the drawing of the “Honorable Fifth Column” painting very appropriate, but accurate as well.
    War had not even been declared yet, it was the attack on Pearl Harbor when an Imperial Japanese Pilot crashed on Niihau Island in Hawaii, where is was held by Native Hawaiians. Only 3 Japanese-American people lived on the island. One born in Japan, Ishimatsu Shintani, and two who were Hawaiian born Japanese Americans, Yoshio and Irene Harada. All 3 immediately started to help him escape. Shintani tried via bribery, when that failed Yoshio resorted to violence, even shooting his neighbor of years, 3 times then killing himself when the pilot was killed attempting to shoot his way out.

    The rapid decision to help Japan despite no sign of being loyalty to them, was a major factor in the decision for internment camps, if it wasn’t the main one. 2 even being born citizens.

  • Clifford says:

    The greatest generation? What a pile of garbage.

  • Jack Sprt says:

    Only people with COMPLETE IGNORANCE of Japan in the late 20’s til The Bombs could masked the statement Suess was racist.

    Japanese committed MULTIPLE genocides of complete cultures…

    Rape of Nanking

    Tortured, raped and annihilated the human race all across Asia committing attrocitirs they were PROUD of. YouTube Rape of Nanking if google hasn’t already wiped out their own records of their crimes against the world.

    If you aren’t familiar with the Hawaiian website site that catalogs genocide, you need to look for it.

    Estimates range from 8-12 MILLION people wiped off the face of the earth by the Japanese.

    It wasn’t about oil or the islands physical needs. Murdering possibly 12 million people, doing unspeakable acts before killing them was an ideology of one of the most xenophobic people on earth.

    NEVER HAS ANYONE CRITICIZED A CHARICATURE OF HITLER.

    The Japanese raped, mutilated, tortured and killed ALMOST TWICE the number of human beings for racist reasons than Hitler did.

  • John Hutchinson says:

    Context is so important in this debate. No one in any of the Allied countries who lived through WWII would point a finger of shame at the anti-Axis propaganda cartoons of the time. Those who were not “there” should be careful how they weigh in with their sanctimonious opinions.

  • Amigo Kandu says:

    During WWII, the Japanese Army occupied Guam & Saipan Islands with brutality that would make ISIS of today proud.
    I lived on Guam in 1970’s. A native Chamorro woman who survived the WWII horror described one event:

    “I the Japanese took several women from our village, and a few young girls including me. We were marched into a cave, and told to wait.

    A grenade was thrown into the cave and blew up. Some were hit, the women shielded us girls. Then bullets came in, and more grenades.

    The bodies fell on top of me. Japanese came into the cave, stabbing the bodies, missing me on the bottom of the pile.

    I waited for them to leave, then pulled myself free from the bodies. I went back to my village to report the deaths of the others. I was 6 years old.” (Mrs. Rosa Garrido)

    Guam Liberation Day (1941) is still celebrated, though most of that generation has now passed.

    Google Japanese Hell Ships also.

    The two Atomic bombs dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were effective to stop the fanatic madness of the Japanese war machine, we cannot be sorry for that, they just would not give up, ever.

    What a shame, the Japanese farmers in California had made great strides in “truck crops” and were respected. After WWII, many families did lose valuable farm land.

  • EquitableEquine says:

    No-one is born racist– “You’ve got to be taught to hate and fear,” as the song from “South Pacific” says. Look at nearly any culture in history and you’ll find evidence of racism, bigotry, even genocide, because people are people and sometimes our fears of ‘the other’ are irrational and we can find all kinds of reasons for justifying treating them badly.

    We can unlearn our hatreds and fears but we have first of all to recognize how irrational they are. We have to stop dehumanizing people whose cultures we don’t understand and teach children what Dr. Seuss taught: “A person’s a person no matter how small.”

  • AP says:

    Wow. A voice of reason. Thank you.

  • Valerie Finnigan says:

    That was not a caricature of miscellaneous Asian stereotype A. That was a caricature of Tojo. Note the mustache, hairline, glasses, and the subtle nod to his Samurai class status.

    Note also that the Hitler caricature is not an exact likeness, either, but a caricature.

    This particular cartoon is only “racist” to people who think all Asians look alike. And that belief is racist.

  • Benji Vulao says:

    While that might be true, he then proceeded

  • Benji Vulao says:

    (In trying to research the publish dates of Suess’s above works [both 1942] to see if “proceeded” was accurate I inadvertantly hit the submit button. Anyhow..)

    While that might be true, he ALSO, created that second piece in which everyone looks..

    1) alike
    2) like his “caricature” of Tojo

  • Jellyontoast says:

    So why then do so many white people demonize black people and native people for being upset with how they were treated by white people. If it’s ok for white americans to be upset with the ones they’re fighting why is it then not ok for other groups fighting them to be equally as upset.

  • LegendofMe101 says:

    These comments are absolutely cringe to read. G

  • Scott says:

    You are misinformed and publishing blatant lies, while I don’t agree with doing these things to an entire group of ppl you have left out key facts to paint a false picture. The bombing of Tokyo and nuclear bombing of Hiroshima was lead up to by the massacre of hundreds and thousands of US troops by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor, if your going to report such things as you have here have enough respect for truth and for the lives of US veterans lost to actually get the facts right.

  • tony uminski says:

    When the Japanese Emperial Army landed on your shore in the morning, it was going to be a very bad day. If you look at a map of the Pacific from 1942-43, all you see is red on which lands the Japanese had conquered. Of course, they met little resistence. People on New Guinea had no weapons…nore the Phillipines…nor Indonesia…even the Chinese will ill equipped to deter Japanese imperialism. And the soldiers were absolutely brutal. Mass killings, raping women and children … as mentioned before, look at what happened at the Chinese capital at the time, Nanking. Truman warned the Japanese leadership at Potsdam there was a new weapon coming. We actually killed more Japanese citizens the months before in the bombing of Tokyo. We sent out leaflets to civilians. We warned them again. Bomb went off on Hiroshima. Hundreds wiped out. Did the Japanese leadership surrender? NO! We told them there was another one…they did not fold. Nagasaki is totally on Hirohito…he saw what happened in Hiroshima, yet he allowed Nagasaki to happen. They finally quit…but even then, there were factions in the Japanese hierarchy who did not want to surrender. if we invaded, a million US servicemen would die. Japanese civilians would have killed Americans, who their government told them American soldiers would eat their babies if they came into their village. How could Truman look a wife and mother in the eye at the funeral of her husband, who died on the beaches of Japan, ‘I could have stopped the invasion, but I didn’t use the bomb.’ His job was to protect AMERICAN lives. What the Japanese Emperial Army did in Okinawa — falling on their swords rather than surrender and demanding women and children do the same — was a precursor of what would happen…and, btw, both Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected targets based on their war-making plants and industry. Am I sad 400,000 Japanese citizens died in the A-bomb events…you bet. But if it saved a million American lives, and brought the war to an end, Mr Truman has nothing to apologize for.

  • tony uminski says:

    don’t know how to edit this — but it should read: hundreds of thousands wiped out…not hundreds. sorry.

  • Gato says:

    Dunno why I’m fighting the trolls, maybe for the author’s sake. But the point of this is that GEISEL HIMSELF changed his opinion once he met Japanese people. So the person you should be angry at is Dr. Seuss not the writer of this article …

  • Chris says:

    isn’t it funny how democrats rallied behind and supported the late senator Byrd despite his affiliation with the KKK, yet they can’t get over Dr Seuss? Even when the author made amends and atoned for his past cartoons during the war his books would ultimately be canceled decades later. surely this is exhibit A in deranged double standard mentality at work in the left in this country.

  • John says:

    This article is complete bs. First, the Japanese were depicted the way they were because they made no attempt to hide the the atrocities they committed in China, the pacific and Burma. It was openly required as part of their bushido Code. Second, an equal number of German Americans were interned as well, and many had been interned during ww1 as well so quit making this a race issue. Third, firebombing in Japan was done because Japan used wood as a primary building source as opposed to stone and concrete in Europe. Firebombs were more effective then HE and plus the war effort was geared towards Germany and Europe with Japan being an after thought so much of the ordinance in the pacific was left over or deemed not as effective to use in Europe. Also, 3.5 to 5 times more German civilians were killed in allied air raids than in Japan. Last, the atomic bombs were intended for Germany. Several German cities had been preselected as targets but Germany surrendered before the bombs were ready. Japan was the only axis country left and people were growing weary of the war. We had to find away to avoid a costly invasion of the home islands which could have wiped the Japanese race entirely off the face of the planet based off of their willingness to die for the emperor and seeing how Japanese civilians reacted in Okinawa and Saipan. And with millions of occupied people and POWs still being held and tortured by the Japanese military, a protracted embargo or negotiation period wasn’t an option either.

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