The (Urban) Legend of Ernest Hemingway’s Six-Word Story: “For sale, Baby shoes, Never worn.”

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A piercingly dark piece of writing, taking the heart of a Dickens or Dostoevsky novel and carving away all the rest, Ernest Hemingway’s six-word story—fabled forerunner of flash- and twitter-fiction—is shorter than many a story’s title:

For sale, Baby shoes, Never worn.

The extreme terseness in this elliptical tragedy has made it a favorite example of writing teachers over the past several decades, a display of the power of literary compression in which, writes a querent to the site Quote Investigator, “the reader must cooperate in the construction of the larger narrative that is obliquely limned by these words.” Supposedly composed sometime in the ’20s at The Algonquin (or perhaps Luchow’s, depending on whom you ask), the six-word story, it’s said, came from a ten-dollar bet Hemingway made at a lunch with some other writers that he could write a novel in six words. After penning the famous line on a napkin, he passed it around the table, and collected his winnings. That’s the popular lore, anyway. But the truth is much less colorful.

In fact, it seems that versions of the six-word story appeared long before Hemingway even began to write, at least as early as 1906, when he was only 7, in a newspaper classified section called “Terse Tales of the Town,” which published an item that read, “For sale, baby carriage, never been used. Apply at this office.” Another, very similar, version appeared in 1910, then another, suggested as the title for a story about “a wife who has lost her baby,” in a 1917 essay by William R. Kane, who thought up “Little Shoes, Never Worn.” Then again in 1920, writes David Haglund in Slate, the supposed Hemingway line appears in a “1921 newspaper column by Roy K. Moulton, who ‘printed a brief note that he attributed to someone named Jerry,'”:

There was an ad in the Brooklyn “Home Talk” which read, “Baby carriage for sale, never used.” Would that make a wonderful plot for the movies?

Many more examples of the narrative device abound, including a 1927 comic strip describing a seven-word version—“For Sale, A Baby Carriage; Never Used!”—as “the greatest short story in the world.” The more that Haglund and Quote Investigator’s Garson O’Toole looked into the matter, the harder they found it to “believe that Hemingway had anything to do with the tale.”

It is possible Hemingway, wittingly or not, stole the story from the classifieds or elsewhere. He was a newspaperman after all, perhaps guaranteed to have come into contact with some version of it. But there’s no evidence that he wrote or talked about the six-word story, or that the lunch bet at The Algonquin ever took place. Instead, it appears that a literary agent, Peter Miller, made up the story whole cloth in 1974 and later published it in his 1991 book, Get Published! Get Produced!: A Literary Agent’s Tips on How to Sell Your Writing.

The legend of the bet and the six-word story grew: Arthur C. Clarke repeated it in a 1998 Reader’s Digest essay, and Miller mentioned it again in a 2006 book. Meanwhile, suspicions arose, and the final debunking occurred in a 2012 scholarly article in The Journal of Popular Culture by Frederick A. Wright, who concluded that no evidence links the six-word story to Hemingway.

So should we blame Miller for ostensibly creating an urban legend, or thank him for giving competitive minimalists something to beat, and inspiring the entire genre of the “six-word memoir”? That depends, I suppose, on what you think of competitive minimalists and six-word memoirs. Perhaps the moral of the story, fitting in the Twitter age, is that the great man theory of authorship so often gets it wrong; the most memorable stories and ideas can arise spontaneously, anonymously, from anywhere.

Related Content:

Ernest Hemingway Creates a Reading List for a Young Writer, 1934

Ernest Hemingway’s Very First Published Stories, Free as an eBook

18 (Free) Books Ernest Hemingway Wished He Could Read Again for the First Time

Download 55 Free Online Literature Courses: From Dante and Milton to Kerouac and Tolkien

Josh Jones is a writer and musician based in Durham, NC. Follow him at @jdmagness

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Comments (25)
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  • Rain,adustbowlstory says:

    Carriage: lame.
    Shoes: works.

    That’s Hemingway.

  • Andrew Shalat says:

    I think your use of the word “picaresque” is wrong.

  • Adam says:

    Sounds like a Strindberg short story, which isn’t exactly six words long, but bretty short too: about a page. Someone seems to have summarized it.

  • Ted Haigh says:

    “…inspiring the entire genre of the ‘six-word memoir’…” Not to mention this active little expression of it….

    Everyone (more or less) writes their own, ad hoc. Lots of SMH contributions but some really outstanding ones too.

  • MagicMitch says:

    I can’t attest as to the author, but here’s a very short story that I used to see in the Classifieds every once in awhile:

    Lost Dog:
    Missing one eye,
    Missing one leg,
    Answers to the name of “Lucky.”

  • Mike McCollum says:

    Here’s a five-word short story: “Small matters occupy small minds.”

  • Robert Carnegie says:

    The man was terse. He wrote short sentences. It is a story about the man who wrote the shortest story. The man would not be Henry James. Henry James would not write the short sentence, the short story. Henry James stories are like stories by a German. Ernest Hemingway went to Italy. He went to Paris and he went to Spain. He went to Cuba. He bought a phrase book and the sentences in the phrase book were short and he saw that the short sentences in the phrase book were good, because you said what you needed to say and nothing more. And it was good that the sentences were short because you would have to say them several times before the people understood what you wanted.

    I thought the story was about the cot for the baby but it could be any of the things that you have with a baby. It is not the same, because you don’t put a baby in shoes straight away. I could tell you that story, but it’s no fun, so I won’t.

  • Guy says:

    It’s not even a story.

  • Ken says:

    I wouldn’t say it was debunked… whether or not Ernest H. actually made up this line can never be proven or debunked, and that matters little. Whether or not he’d heard it somewhere also matters little. What matters is we know of this story because of Ernest H. That is all. (oh, and the bit about the baby carriage was a parody: hit was being sold not because the baby died, but because they had twins instead)

  • Reese says:

    Who knew you could go so deep into 6 words

  • tatum says:

    i didnt finish

  • Asdasfaf says:

    That is a very bad example of Twitterture. End of.

  • John Cena says:

    This guy is astounding. Amazing.


  • D. Abramoff says:

    All nice exposition and supposition going nowhere. Try living it. That succinct enough for you?

  • Fred Hasson says:

    Exactly. The story may have been going around, but Hemingway told it right.

  • Abina says:

    wht does it mean … for sale ,baby shoes,never worn

  • Morgan Brogdon says:

    ts actually kinda simple but i can see how you didn’t get it.
    For sale:being sold baby shoes:baby shoes never worn: a baby has never worn these shoes. Parents were expecting a baby so they bought baby shoes but they had a miscarriage so they had to sell them.

  • Kev says:

    It’s not even a story. The basis of a story HAS to HAVE a beginning, middle, and end. Statements are NOT stories by definition and the factual properties that make up a story.

    And as for Morgan Brogdon’s explanation: “For sale: being sold baby shoes: baby shoes never worn: a baby has never worn these shoes. Parents were expecting a baby so they bought baby shoes but they had a miscarriage so they had to sell them.”

    No your OPINION of YOUR translation is incorrect. The STATEMENT can just as easily be assumed to mean: “Parents never used the shoes because they thought they were ugly” or “Parents never used the shoes because they thought they were ugly.”

    It is FACTUALLY a statement and not a story. A story TELLS a story and isn’t open to INTERPRETATION.

  • Francis Thomas says:

    Married at noon, then swerved, avoiding badger. Widower at two.

  • Mojave Brennan says:

    It’s the openness of the interpretation: filling in with one’s subjective speculation and imagination that IS the Story. The back story that fills in the missing details which led to the statement: For sale, Baby shoes, Never worn…

    The words that are not on the page that make this a story.

  • Robert A. Lytle says:

    Sun collapses.

  • Michael says:

    “I am not here any longer…
    But…where I am now, I am no shorter, though closer to the end, of it.

  • sheldon says:

    Great article.Thanks for your great information. The content are quite impressive.I agree that Hemingway is not that hard to use, but only once you get used to the color-coding. I thought I would get used to it pretty quickly but after several weeks, I still find it distracting. I like the features that the free version of Hemingway offers, I’ve been researching similar alternatives and randomly found Grammarly and INK for all. I’ve only used INK for all a couple of times but the UI seems less distracting and has some search optimization features

  • james w smith says:

    I am bored, I read it.

  • The Debunker says:

    So I’ve been researching this for hours now, and Peter Miller didn’t actually say that. Miller wrote that he first heard the tale from an unnamed newspaper syndicator in 1974.

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