In the graduate department where I once taught freshmen and sophomores the rudiments of college English, it became common practice to include Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus on many an Intro to Lit syllabus, along with a viewing of Julie Taymor’s flamboyant film adaptation. The early work is thought to be Shakespeare’s first tragedy, cobbled together from popular Roman histories and Elizabethan revenge plays. And it is a truly bizarre play, swinging wildly in tone from classical tragedy, to satirical dark humor, to comic farce, and back to tragedy again. Critic Harold Bloom called Titus “an exploitative parody” of the very popular revenge tragedies of the time—its murders, maimings, rapes, and mutilations pile up, scene upon scene, and leave characters and readers/audiences reeling in grief and disbelief from the shocking body count.
Part of the fun of teaching Titus is in watching students’ jaws drop as they realize just how bloody-minded the Bard is. While Taymor’s adaptation takes many modern liberties in costuming, music, and set design, its horror-show depiction of Titus’ unrelenting mayhem is faithful to the text. Later, more mature plays rein in the excessive black comedy and shock factor, but the bodies still stack up. As accustomed as we are to thinking of contemporary entertainments like Game of Thrones as especially gratuitous, the whole of Shakespeare’s corpus, writes Alice Vincent at The Telegraph is “more gory” than even HBO’s squirm-worthy fantasy epic, featuring a total of 74 deaths in 37 plays to Game of Thrones’ 61 in 50 episodes.
All of those various demises will now come together in a compendium play being staged at The Globe (in London) called The Complete Deaths. It will include everything “from early rapier thrusts to the more elaborate viper-breast application adopted by Cleopatra.” The only death director Tim Crouch has excluded is “that of a fly that meets a sticky end in Titus Andronicus.” In the infographic above, see all of the causes of those deaths, including Antony and Cleopatra’s snakebite and Titus Andronicus’ piece-de-resistance, “baked in a pie.”
Part of the reason so many of my former undergraduate students found Shakespeare’s brutality shocking and unexpected has to do with the way his work was tamed by later 17th and 18th century critics, who “didn’t approve of the on-stage gore.” The Telegraph quotes director of the Shakespeare Institute Michael Dobson, who points out that Elizabethan drama was especially gruesome; “the English drama was notorious for on-stage deaths,” and all of Shakespeare’s contemporaries, including Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson, wrote violent scenes that can still turn our stomachs.
Recent productions like a bloody staging of Titus at The Globe in 2014 are restoring the gore in Shakespeare’s work, and The Complete Deaths will leave audiences with little doubt that Shakespeare’s culture was as permeated with representations of violence as our own—and it was as much, if not more so, plagued by the real thing.
via The Telegraph/Mental Floss
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Josh Jones is a writer and musician based in Durham, NC. Follow him at @jdmagness
What about Portia from Julius Caesar? She swallowed hot coals. Yet it’s not on the chart!
On the graph on the left side I noticed right after lack of sleep there is an orange percentage slot that was not indicat ed. I’m curious if this was an error or was it perhaps on purpose. Just felt like letting you know about it.
There are actually 5 unlabeled sectors on the pie chart.
Ophelia – drowned
Desdemona – suffocated
You can hover or click on the unlabelled pie segments to see what they denote.
Perhaps swallowing hot coals falls under death by indigestion?
I assume all death by blade come under “stabbing”, e.g Coriolanus, Macbeth
The chart is incomplete, as some others have pointed out. Perhaps the title should be qualified: ‘A Sampling of Deaths Depicted by the Bard’? What about little Mammilius in The Winters Tale who dies from separation from his mom? He can’t be the only ‘drops dead’. There are plenty of others who, like Falstaff, pass away from consumption or other ambiguous causes.
Is the death of Enobarbus under “dropped dead” or “threw himself away”? If not, it is oft said that he may indeed have died of “a broken heart”. Perhaps that’s yet another category? Just a thought!
Where’s the infographic? All i see is an incomplete pie chart.
alcoholic poisoning deserves a slice of pie. Falstaff was lucky to die of consumption ahead of over consumption of both food and alcohol.
Is the Duke in Richard III drowned in a butt of wine not considered drowning?
“Having to read Shakespeare” not among the choices.
well alcohol can bite like a poisonious snake
Update it. Ophelia isn’t represented.
” Later, more mature plays reign in the excessive black comedy and shock factor, […]”
That would be “rein in” then?
When (if?) Prince Charles accedes to the British throne he will need to be reigned in.
Who died by being blinded
The Pie death are my favorite lol.
you are so right nan gay lol sub 2 WillTEG
oh, my, how negative you are to point out one omission
If you hover over the “slice” it shows the heading. I saw every label.
Stabbed then drowned.
This sounds like a Louis Marder dilemma. He taught Shakesphere when I was a student at the Univ. of Miami. He claimed to have written the plays in one of his previous existances. He was a phenomenal teacher.
Is the dataset available?
For jamieannete… just alluded to expirations 😉
Why is a piece of the pie not accounted for? There is clearly a piece that is unaccounted for and has no lable next to it…!
You forgot drowning (Ophelia).
There is also no listing for shot, and there are 2 who die that way in 1 Henry 6, Salisbury and SIr Thomas Gargrave.
There are still 3 unlabeled slices on the chart, all on the right side (i.e. Broken Heart, Drowned, & Smothered by Pillow).
I don’t think the number of MacDuff children is ever specified in the play, so 30 stabbings has to be an approximation.
For those people carrying on about this or that wedge isn’t labelled – click on the wedge, it tells you how many and how.
Lovely chart!! Could you put suicide in? Maybe I missed
Great job! I saw that by hovering over the pie chart one can see every death, including Ophelia and Desdemona. My undergraduate degree is in Drama and I truly appreciate the work that went into the making of this chart. I love it when A character dies of more than one thing. Also, so much is biographical, so it’s not gratuitous.
I’d like to know if anyone was burned alive, particularly at the sstake and if so, who?
Yes, I wondered what happened to that famous death.
Yes, Ophelia comes under drowning.