In the fall of 1969 the Rolling Stones were in a Los Angeles recording studio, putting the final touches on their album Let it Bleed. It was a tumultuous time for the Stones. They had been struggling with the album for the better part of a year as they dealt with the personal disintegration of their founder and multi-instrumentalist Brian Jones, whose drug addiction and personality problems had reached a critical stage. Jones was fired from the band in June of that year. He died less than a month later. And although the Stones couldn't have known it at the time, the year would end on another catastrophic note, as violence broke out at the notorious Altamont Free Concert just a day after Let it Bleed was released.
It was also a grim time around the world. The assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy, the Tet Offensive, the brutal suppression of the Prague Spring--all of these were recent memories. Not surprisingly, Let it Bleed was not the most cheerful of albums. As Stephen Davis writes in his book Old Gods Almost Dead: The 40-Year Odyssey of the Rolling Stones, "No rock record, before or since, has ever so completely captured the sense of palpable dread that hung over its era."
And no song on Let it Bleed articulates this dread with greater force than the apocalyptic "Gimme Shelter," in which Mick Jagger sings of a fire "sweepin' our very street today," like a "Mad bull lost his way."
It's just a shot away
It's just a shot away
In an interview last November with Melissa Block for the NPR program All Things Considered, Jagger talked about those lyrics, and the making of the song:
One of the most striking moments in the interview is when Jagger describes the circumstances surrounding soul singer Merry Clayton's powerful background vocals. "When we got to Los Angeles and we were mixing it, we thought, 'Well, it'd be great to have a woman come and do the rape/murder verse,' or chorus or whatever you want to call it," said Jagger. "We randomly phoned up this poor lady in the middle of the night, and she arrived in her curlers and proceeded to do that in one or two takes, which is pretty amazing. She came in and knocked off this rather odd lyric. It's not the sort of lyric you give anyone--'Rape, murder/It's just a shot away'--but she really got into it, as you can hear on the record."
The daughter of a Baptist minister, Merry Clayton grew up singing in her father's church in New Orleans. She made her professional debut at age 14, recording a duet with Bobby Darin. She went on to work with The Supremes, Elvis Presley and many others, and was a member of Ray Charles's group of backing singers, The Raelettes. She is one of the singers featured in the new documentary film, 20 Feet From Stardom. In an interview last week with Terry Gross on NPR's Fresh Air, Clayton talked about the night she was asked to sing on "Gimme Shelter":
Well, I'm at home at about 12--I'd say about 11:30, almost 12 o'clock at night. And I'm hunkered down in my bed with my husband, very pregnant, and we got a call from a dear friend of mine and producer named Jack Nitzsche. Jack Nitzsche called and said you know, Merry, are you busy? I said No, I'm in bed. he says, well, you know, There are some guys in town from England. And they need someone to come and sing a duet with them, but I can't get anybody to do it. Could you come? He said I really think this would be something good for you.
At that point, Clayton recalled, her husband took the phone out of her hand and said, "Man, what is going on? This time of night you're calling Merry to do a session? You know she's pregnant." Nitzsche explained the situation, and just as Clayton was drifting back to sleep her husband nudged her and said, "Honey, you know, you really should go and do this date." Clayton had no idea who the Rolling Stones were. When she arrived at the studio, Keith Richards was there and explained what he wanted her to do.
I said, Well, play the track. It's late. I'd love to get back home. So they play the track and tell me that I'm going to sing--this is what you're going to sing: Oh, children, it's just a shot away. It had the lyrics for me. I said, Well, that's cool. So I did the first part, and we got down to the rape, murder part. And I said, Why am I singing rape, murder? ...So they told me the gist of what the lyrics were, and I said Oh, okay, that's cool. So then I had to sit on a stool because I was a little heavy in my belly. I mean, it was a sight to behold. And we got through it. And then we went in the booth to listen, and I saw them hooting and hollering while I was singing, but I didn't know what they were hooting and hollering about. And when I got back in the booth and listened, I said, Ooh, that's really nice. They said, well, You want to do another? I said, well, I'll do one more, I said and then I'm going to have to say thank you and good night. I did one more, and then I did one more. So it was three times I did it, and then I was gone. The next thing I know, that's history.
Clayton sang with such emotional force that her voice cracked. ("I was just grateful that the crack was in tune," she told Gross.) In the isolated vocal track above, you can hear the others in the studio shouting in amazement. Despite giving what would become the most famous performance of her career, it turned out to be a tragic night for Clayton. Shortly after leaving the studio, she lost her baby in a miscarriage. It has generally been assumed that the stress from the emotional intensity of her performance and the lateness of the hour caused the miscarriage. For many years Clayton found the song too painful to hear, let alone sing. "That was a dark, dark period for me," she told the Los Angeles Times in 1986, "but God gave me the strength to overcome it. I turned it around. I took it as life, love and energy and directed it in another direction, so it doesn't really bother me to sing 'Gimme Shelter' now. Life is short as it is and I can't live on yesterday."